Hepatitis C (HCV) is a virus that is spread through blood-to-blood contact. The infection leads to inflammation of the liver. There is currently no vaccine to prevent HCV infection, however in many cases it can be cured.
In New Zealand about 50,000 people have chronic hepatitis C and only half of these people are aware they have the virus.
Acute hepatitis C occurs when a person is infected with the hepatitis C virus for less than six months. Chronic hepatitis C is a long-term infection which lasts more than six months. Two out of every three people infected go on to have a long term (chronic) infection.
The virus causes inflammation of the liver, which affects the way the liver works. The liver is a very important organ which does many tasks essential for life and growth. If left untreated, hepatitis C can result in a lot of scarring in the liver (cirrhosis), which stops the liver working properly. Liver damage can also lead to liver cancer or liver failure.
To find out more about scarring (cirrhosis and fibrosis), read the article ‘Cirrhosis vs. fibrosis: What do I need to know about cirrhosis?‘ from issue 7 of Talking Hep C.
Many people with hepatitis C have no symptoms. It is often referred to as the ‘silent epidemic’ because it’s common for people not to notice any symptoms until 20 or 30 years after infection. However, symptoms that do appear are usually mild and non-specific. The most common symptoms include:
You do not have to tell anyone you have hepatitis, however you should take reasonable precautions to prevent the spread of the virus to others.
You may choose to share your diagnosis with particular people for support. It is often best to tell people you trust or people directly affected, such as household members or sexual partners.
Telling healthcare workers such as a doctor or nurse may be beneficial for good health care (e.g. prescribing the most appropriate medications). Health care workers, including dentists, are required to use standard infection control precautions for all situations and procedures that may involve exposure to blood or other bodily fluids, regardless of whether you have hepatitis or not.
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People living with hepatitis do not have to tell employers, unless you work in an environment that may put others at risk, such as healthcare. However, disclosure is not mandatory. Discrimination against people with hepatitis in the workplace is illegal.
Hepatitis C is spread through blood-to-blood contact. It is highly infectious and can survive outside the body for more than seven days. Those most at risk of hepatitis C are people who:
There are two blood tests needed to diagnose chronic hepatitis C.
Hepatitis C is not spread through everyday contact such as:
Hepatitis C is spread through blood-to-blood contact. To avoid infecting others you should take the following steps:
As of July 1, 2016 Harvoni and Viekira Pak have been funded to treat the hepatitis C infection. These DAAs (direct acting-antivirals) have cure rates of 95+% and have few side effects.
More medicines to treat hepatitis C are expected to be funded by the government soon. Let your GP know you have hepatitis C so that you can be contacted when new treatments are available. While waiting for the government to fund more medicines some people have been buying medicines from overseas. Please see here for further information on self-importation of medicine.
Regular monitoring is important to assess the health of your liver. Blood tests can detect liver disease. If there is liver damage your GP can refer you to your local gastroenterology service for further assessment.
A FibroScan provides information about the health of your liver. It is a simple, painless test that determines if liver damage (fibrosis or cirrhosis) is present. It measures the degree of stiffness (scarring) in the liver.
A liver biopsy is a procedure which involves taking a small sample of liver tissue and examining it with a microscope. In many cases, a FibroScan removes the need for a liver biopsy.